• Users Online: 132
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
REVIEW
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 179-197

Genetic markers and evolution of targeted therapy in cancer


Cancer Cytogenetics Department, Tata Memorial Hospital, Annex Building, Room No. 726 B, Dr. Ernest Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai – 400012, India

Correspondence Address:
Pratibha S Kadam Amare
Cancer Cytogenetics Department, Tata Memorial Hospital, Annex Building, Room No. 726 B, Dr. Ernest Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-3666.240654

Rights and Permissions

The advances in biotechnology including high throughput platforms, and bioinformatics has resulted in detailing molecular pathology of various cancers, identifying targets such as fusion genes, chimeric RNA, fusion proteins, amplified gene, genes with point mutation, overexpression or down regulation of RNA, microRNA (miRNA) and aberrant DNA methylation. The genetic markers provide diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic markers, and may also provide predictive markers. Several targeted molecules have been identified as cell surface antigens and tyrosine kinases e. g. FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA and PRAM1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia; JAK2 in chronic myeloproliferative disorders; ALK, EGFR, K-RAS and BRAF in lung cancer; BRAF, KIT in melanoma; HER2 in breast cancer. The driver molecules and their mechanism of actions revealed various oncogenic pathways in the development of effective inhibitor molecules/proteins as targeted therapy, and novel mutations in the genes associated with the inhibitor protein. Targeted cancer therapy aimed to antagonize the deregulated molecule/s, commonly comprises therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. In vitro studies and clinical trials of the inhibitory molecules showed promising results as single drug therapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Further, multiple mutations associated with resistance to targeted therapy were identified, leading to treatment with second line drugs and consequent better prognosis. Further advancements of biotechnology with identification of genetic variation, multiple resistant mutations which help discovery of a cascade of genetic markers with deeper understanding of biology of disease that offers hopes towards identification of development of more efficient targeted therapy with reduced toxicity and resistance.


[PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed173    
    Printed28    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded34    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal