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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January 2020
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-27

Online since Friday, June 12, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Those few horrible days: Premenstrual syndrome p. 1
Gurmeet Singh Sarla
DOI:10.4103/BMRJ.BMRJ_21_19  
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a distinct clinical syndrome during the recurrent luteal phase of menstrual cycle wherein there is a significant deterioration in the quality of life due to disruptive physical and psychiatric symptoms caused by an abnormal central nervous system response to the hormonal changes of the female reproductive cycle. It happens in the postovulation phase because estrogen and progesterone levels fall dramatically if there is no pregnancy. Physical symptoms include breast tenderness and bloating sensation, and emotional symptoms may manifest as mood swings, depression or feeling of hopelessness, intense anger and conflict with others, tension, anxiety, irritability, decreased interest in usual activities, difficulty in concentrating, fatigue, and changes in appetite. Symptoms emerge 1–2 weeks before menses and resolve completely with the onset of menses. This review article outlines the pathophysiology, presentation, severity and timing of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of PMS and reiterates that it is a transient and physiological phase during the menstrual cycle and not a pathological entity.
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16S ribosomal RNA gene-based metagenomics: A review p. 5
Asmita Kamble, Shriya Sawant, Harinder Singh
DOI:10.4103/BMRJ.BMRJ_4_20  
With the advent of contemporary molecular tools, the conventional microbiological isolation, enrichment techniques, and approaches have changed considerably. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing have shown that the major percentage of microbial diversity in an ecosystem remain “unculturable” or “as yet uncultivable” due to the lack of information on their biology, limited selection media, and culture conditions that could support their growth. Identifying and knowing more about them have become an important objective in the microbiological research. The ecological, environmental, and functional implications of a microbial ecosystem can be deciphered by knowing its microbial composition and interactions. The areas of whole-cell and targeted gene metagenomics are playing a key role in accomplishing this objective. The present review discusses the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene metagenomics approach, which has found major applications in identifying the composition of a given microbial ecosystem. Different systems, processes, and analysis tools are available to perform 16S rRNA metagenomics; however, there are few concerns that require more investigation to gain the maximum benefit of these techniques.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Impact of type and duration of use of antipsychotic drugs on plasma levels of selected acute-phase proteins in patients with major mental illnesses p. 12
Sheu Kadiri Rahamon, Kehinde Sola Akinlade, Olatunbosun Ganiyu Arinola, Saheed Ladipo Kakako, Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan
DOI:10.4103/BMRJ.BMRJ_27_19  
Background: Disorders of the hemostatic system such as hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis are clinical manifestations in patients with schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. However, the role of the type of antipsychotic medication as well as the duration of use on disturbances in the hemostatic system is poorly understood. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the possible impact of antipsychotic treatment as well as the duration of use on selected acute-phase proteins involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Materials and Methods: Plasma levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were determined in 124 patients with major mental illnesses: schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. Thereafter, the participants were grouped based on the type of antipsychotic medication (typical vs. atypical) and the duration of antipsychotic use. Results: Patients on typical antipsychotics had a slightly elevated level of PAI-1 but a similar level of fibrinogen when compared with patients on atypical antipsychotics. Furthermore, the median plasma levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1 in patients who have been on antipsychotic use for more than 10 years were slightly higher than in patients who have been on the drug for 10 years or less. Conclusion: It could be concluded from this study that patients on typical antipsychotics and those who have used any form of antipsychotics for more than 10 years might benefit from periodic assessment of markers of prothrombosis as it could facilitate early identification of those at risk of venous thromboembolism.
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Effect of contact load upon attrition-corrosion wear behavior of bio-composite materials: In vitro off-axis sliding contact-chewing simulation p. 17
Efe Cetin Yilmaz
DOI:10.4103/BMRJ.BMRJ_2_20  
Background: In recent years, the use of composite materials as biomaterials has been increasing in dentistry. It is important to perform in vitro experiments of biomaterials before living tissue. Aim: The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of contact load upon attrition-corrosion wear behavior of bio-composite materials: in vitro off-axis sliding contact chewing simulation. Material and Method: In this study, 2 mm × 12 mm (weight × diameter) cylindrical test specimens were prepared from Filtek Supreme and Clearfil AP-X bio-composite materials with different filler structure. The surface roughness and Vicker's Hardness values of the bio-composites were measured before the wear test procedures. Then, the test specimens were subjected to off-sliding abrasion test procedures under different mechanical loads in artificial saliva and citric acid medium. Wear volume loss of bio-composite materials was determined after wear test procedures using the three-dimensional noncontact profilometer. Results: As the mechanical loading increased, the loss of wear volume in both composite materials increased irrespective of test medium. However, this increase in wear volume loss in test specimens was more pronounced in the citric acid environment. Conclusion: As a result of, the organic matrix structure (such as Ba glass particle) of the composite material contributes to more volume loss in corrosive environment.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

The Presence of gram-negative bacteria carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene on abiotic touch surfaces at a tertiary care center p. 23
Archana Agrawal, Chakrakodi N Varun, Anjali Shette, Daisy Vanitha John, Ravikumar Raju
DOI:10.4103/BMRJ.BMRJ_23_19  
Objectives: New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), which has emerged as a major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), challenges effective patient management of health-care systems. Nonpathogenic environmental bacteria present on abiotic touch surfaces in hospitals may serve as reservoirs for the NDM gene and contribute to the emergence and spread of resistance to carbapenems. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of NDM-positive GNB in the environment of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight swab samples were collected from various touch surfaces in 12 different wards between January and February 2017. The swabs were cultured in nutrient broth and subsequently subcultured onto McConkey agar plates. Both lactose and nonlactose fermenting colonies grown were identified by biochemical methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect NDM carriage. Results: Twenty-seven (46%) of the samples were positive for microbial growth, of which 21 (36%) samples yielded bacterial growth on McConkey agar plates. Of the 30 isolates identified, 25 (83%) were nonfermenting GNB (NFGNB) and 5 (17%) were Klebsiella spp., of which 1 was Klebsiella oxytoca. NFGNB were isolated mostly from tables and infusion stands in various wards. Four of the five Klebsiella spp. were from patients' beds. Two isolates of NFGNB and one Klebsiella spp. were positive for the NDM gene. Conclusion: In addition to serving as potential pathogens of nosocomial infections, environmental bacteria present on abiotic touch surfaces in hospitals may serve as reservoirs for the NDM gene.
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